Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Oporto is one of the oldest European centres, and its core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996, as "Historic Centre of Porto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar". The historic area is also a National Monument of Portugal. The western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of the Roman Empire. Its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name Portugal, based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto ("the port" or "the harbor"), which is where its English name "Oporto" comes from.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. Also from the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator (son of John I of Portugal) embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco. This expedition by the king and his fleet, which included Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery. The nickname given to the people of Oporto began in those days; Portuenses are to this day, colloquially, referred to as tripeiros (tripe peoples), referring to this period of history, when higher-quality cuts of meat were shipped from Oporto with their sailors, while off-cuts and by-products, such as tripe, were left behind for the citizens of Porto; tripe remains a culturally important dish in modern-day Porto.
Porto features a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb), with influences of an oceanic climate (Cfb), like northern Spain. As a result, its climate shares many characteristics with the warm, dry Mediterranean climates of southern Europe and the wet marine west coast climates of the North Atlantic, providing it warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Cool and rainy days can, occasionally, interrupt the dry season. These occasional summer rainy periods may last a few days and are characterised by showers and cool temperatures around 20 C (68 F) in the afternoon. The annual precipitation is high and concentrated in the winter months, making Oporto one of the wettest major cities of Europe. However, long periods with warmer temperatures and sunny days are frequent even during the rainiest months.
Porto is home to northern Portugal's only Cricket club, the Oporto Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club. Annually, for more than 100 years, a match (the Kendall Cup) has been played between the Oporto Club and the Casuals Club of Lisbon, in addition to regular games against touring teams (mainly from England). The club's pitch is located off the Rua Campo Alegre.
Some of the fiercest fighting of the war occurred in Greece, which suffered greatly at the hands of Soviet war crimes against civilians and indiscriminate bombing by the Soviet Air Forces - including nuclear bombing. The Allies attempted to evacuate civilians from Athens, but the Southern European front totally collapsed, resulting in total Soviet control of Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, and Syria.  Significant losses were also suffered in Central Europe, with Soviet armored forces almost completely overrunning Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg and beginning to invade eastern France and northern Italy. However, despite overwhelming military losses, Allied Forces' diplomats at the United Nations gained a crucial political victory, leading a 281 to 7 vote to gain U.N. military funding for the Allied Forces and establish a global defense agency in a European capital. Another crucial intelligence victory occurred when Tanya Adams conducted a covert operation to gain information on the Soviet Iron Curtain Project. Despite getting captured, Tanya Adams was rescued from the NKVD by Allied Forces and conveyed the information to Allied military and scientific leadership. 041b061a72